top of page



  • The main purpose of this study is to get the preliminary data for wildlife within the proposed project area. 

  • The study area is classified as a disturbed area where the logging activities are being carried out in the nearby areas. 

  • The logging access route led to smaller fragmented forest areas and creates a periphery effect. 

  • Periphery effect is the greatest threat to the survival of wildlife habitat as it can expose them to the predators. 

Study Methodology

  • Both direct and indirect assessments were employed during the field survey carried out. 

  • The direct assessment involved the sighting of birds and mammals. For birds sighting, observation was done by using telescope, high resolution camera, sound recognition and captured by mist nets. 

  • Mist nets with a length of 12m, 2.5m height and 36 mm mesh size was installed at the selected points in the study area. The net stretched between two poles each with a length of 12m. 

  • All nets which are mounted were visited at least every 2 hours to avoid the trapped birds from dying. 

  • The same nets were used to catch bats in the evening. Bats were measured and identified before being released. 

  • For small mammal survey, two types of baits were used, roasted coconuts and bananas. The baits were set at the side of the forest trails within the study area. 

  • The captured animals were sedated using chloroform to ease the process of measurement and species identification and released back into the forest. 

  • For sighting of big mammals, trail camera (Bushnell Trophy Cam) was installed at the area that has been identified as their main route. 

  • The indirect methods also involved such as recognizing animal signs like tracks, noise and calls, burrows, den, nests, marking on soil or vegetation, bones and carcasses and droppings. 

  • The collected data was then compiled and categorized into common species, rare or endangered species, species of conservational significance and migratory species.    

Slide 68 (1).png

The recording and photo capturing of birds from the mist net.

Slide 69 (1).png

Installation of Camera Trail at the study area

Slide 68 (2).png

Observations of birds using high resolutions camera.

Slide 69 (2).png

Camera Trail ( Bushnell Trophy Cam) Installed at the Study Area


Avifauna Diversity


  • A total of 49 different species were recorded during the survey.

  • Seven species are classified as Near Threatened (NT) by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Below are the list of bird species recorded during this survey and some pictures of birds taken during the survey.

Bird species_Page_1.jpg
Bird species_Page_2.jpg

Photographs of bird species found surround the proposed project area

Slide 71 (1).png
Slide 71 (2).png
Slide 71 (3).png
Slide 71 (4).png
  • Common name: Spectacled Bulbul

  • Scientific name : Pycnonotus erythropthalmos

  • Habitat : Edge of the forest, under the canopy of lowland forests to a height of 800m

  • Diet : Buah Macaranga, ara

  • Common name: Yellow-bellied Bulbul

  • Scientific name : Alophoixus phaeocehalus

  • Habitat : Primary forest, lowland areas to a height of 760m

  • Diet : Insects and fruits

  • Common name: Red-eyed Bulbul

  • Scientific name : Pycnonotus brunneus

  • Habitat : Edge of the forest, under the canopy of lowland forests to a height of 800m

  • Diet : Small fruits and insects

  • Common name: Hairy-backed Bulbul

  • Scientific name : Tricholestes criniger

  • Habitat : Under the canopy of lowland forests to a height of 900m, peat swamp forest, freshwater swamps forests, agriculture area and logging area

  • Diet : Insects and small fruits

Slide 72 (1).png
  • Common name: Asian Paradise-Flycather

  • Scientific name : Terpsiphone paradisi

  • Habitat : Inhabit the forest area up to a height of 880m

  • Diet : Insects

Slide 72 (2).png
  • Common name: Rufous-winged philentoma

  • Scientific name : Philentoma pyrhoptera

  • Habitat : Under the canopy of the forest area up to a height of 915m

Slide 72 (3).png
  • Common name: Black-naped Monarch

  • Scientific name : Hypothymis azurea

  • Habitat : Under the canopy of lowland

Slide 72 (4).png
  • Common name: Plaintive Cuckoo

  • Scientific name : Cacomantis merulinus

  • Habitat : Woodland, scrub, grasslands, plantations,gardens and parks

  • Diet : Insects, particularly caterpillars, beetles, bugs

Slide 73 (1).png
  • Common name: Moustached babbler

  • Scientific name : Malacopterun magnirostre

  • Habitat : Lowland forest up to a height of 900m

  • Diet : Insects

Slide 73 (2).png
  • Common name: Little Spiderhunter

  • Scientific name : Arachnothera longirostra

  • Habitat : Under the canopy of degraded forests or not, mountain forests up to an altitude of 1680m

  • Diet : Nectar from forest plants and insects

Slide 73 (3).png
  • Common name: Yellow-breasted Flowerpecker

  • Scientific name : Dicaeum maculatus

  • Habitat : Under the canopy of lowland forest up to a height of 900m

  • Diet : Small fruits

Slide 73 (4).png
  • Common name: Emerald Dove

  • Scientific name : Chalcophaps indica

  • Habitat : Edge of forest areas, primary forests, mangrove forests and plantations

  • Diet : Small fruits, grain and caterpillar

Slide 74 (1).png
  • Common name: Ruby-cheeked Sunbird

  • Scientific name : Chalcoparia singalensis

  • Habitat : Forest, peat swamp forests and mangroves

Slide 74 (2).png
  • Common name: Greean Iora

  • Scientific name : Aegithina viridissima

  • Habitat : Under canopy of lowland forest up to a height of 820m, peat swamp forest,agriculture areas and mangrove

  • Diet : Insects and soft fruits such as ara

Slide 74 (3).png
  • Common name: Bar-winged Flycatcher-Shrike

  • Scientific name : Hemipus picatus

  • Habitat : On the edge of the forest, peat swamp forest, bamboo trees up to a height of 1830m

Slide 75 (1).png
  • Common name: Crested Serpent-Eagle

  • Scientific name : Spilornis cheela

  • Habitat : Forest, mangrove, palm oil or rubber plantation

  • Diet : Primer food is snake including small mammals.

Slide 75 (2).png
  • Common name: Oriental Honey-buzzard

  • Scientific name : Pernis ptilorhyncus

  • Habitat : Forest and plantation areas

  • Diet : honeybee, bee larvae,small mammals, chicks

Mammals and Reptiles

  • The mammals and reptiles that found during the survey were as listed in table below.

  • Tenggiling are believed to inhabit within the study area as evidence of a hole in the tree which might be their nest.

  • Below are the photos of mammals that were found in the study area

Mammals species_Page_1.jpg
Mammals species_Page_2.jpg

Hole in the tree is believed to be nest for Tenggiling

Slide 77 (1).png

Result from Camera Trail Installed at the Study Area; Recorded Wild Boar ( Sus scrofa)

Slide 77 (2).png

Result from Camera Trail installed at the Study Area: Recorded Tapir (Tapirus indicus)

Slide 78 (1).png

Footprint of Tapir ( Tapirus indicus)

Slide 78 (2).png

Footprints and damage to the banana trees indicate the presence of elephants (Elephas maximum)

Slide 79 (1).png

A) Elephant (Elephas maximus) footprint

B) Elephant droppings which is recently found in the study area

Slide 79 (2).png
Spotted fruit Bat.jpg
  • Common name: Spotted Winged Fruit Bat

  • Scientific name : Balionycteris maculate

  • Habitat : Forest and downhills

  • Diet : Forest fruits, pollens, honey and insects

Slide 80 (2).png
  • Common name: Lesser Bamboo Bat

  • Scientific name : Tylonycteris pachypus

  • Habitat: Forest area with plenty of bamboos

  • Diet : Insects

Slide 80 (3).png
  • Common name: Intermediate Horseshoe Bat

  • Scientific name: Rhinolopus affinis

  • Habitat: Forest area

  • Diet : Insects

Slide 80 (4).png
  • Common name: Bower’s Rat

  • Scientific name: Berylmys bowersi

  • Habitat: Forest and disturbed areas

  • Diet : Plants including fruits, rarely consume insects and snails

Slide 81 (1).png
  • Common name: Eurasian Wild Pig

  • Scientific name : Sus scrofa

  • Habitat : Disturbed and undisturbed
    Diet : Roots, seeds and various types of plants, small animals, insects, worms, bird eggs, nestlings if encountered on the ground.

Slide 81 (2).png
  • Common name: Asian Tapir

  • Scientific name : Tapirus indicus

  • Habitat : Inhabit humid tropical forest

  • Diet : Eat more than 38 species of forest plants.

Slide 81 (3).png
  • Common name: Asian elephant

  • Scientific name : Elephas maximus

  • Habitat : Forest areas

  • Diet : Various forest plants including soft grass, palm tree’s umbuk, banana stems, fruits, etc

Slide 81 (4).png
  • Common name: Lesser Mousedeer

  • Scientific name : Tragulus kanchil

  • Habitat : Forest area, secondary forest, farms

  • Diet : Fallen forest fruits, shrubs and fungi

Slide 82 (1).png
  • Common name: Asian Leaf Turtle

  • Scientific name : Cyclemys dendata

  • Habitat : River, rivulets
    Diets : Fruits such as Ara, fish, carcass and crustacaeae

Slide 82 (2).png
  • Common name: Malayan Striped Coral Snake

  • Scientific name : Calliophis intestinalis

  • Habitat : Forest areas

Slide 82 (3).png
  • Common name: Biawak air

  • Scientific name : Varanus savator

  • Habitat : Forest areas

  • Family: Cercopithecidae

  • Local name : Macaques

  • Scientific name : Macaca nemestrina

  • Diet : Principally frugivorous (preferring fruit), although their diet also includes seeds, leaves, flowers, and tree bark.

Slide 83 (2).png
  • Family: Cercopithecidae

  • Local name : Silvery Lutung

  • Scientific name : Trachypithecus cristatus

  • Diet : Leaves

Slide 83 (3).png
  • Family: Tupaiidae

  • Local name : Gunther Lesser Treeshrew

  • Scientific name : Tupaia glis

  • Diet : Fruits, Leaves, Bark and even the root parts of plants

Slide 83 (4).png
  • Family: Sciuridae

  • Local name : Treehsrew

  • Scientific name : Callosciurus notatus

  • Diet : Fruit and insects

Slide 84 (1).png
  • Family: Ursidae

  • Local name : Sun bear

  • Scientific name : Helarctos malayanus

  • Diet : Ants, bees, beetles, honey, termites and plant material such as seeds and several kinds of fruits, birds and deer

Slide 84 (2).jpg
  • Family: Felidae

  • Local name : Tiger

  • Scientific name : Panthera tigris

  • Diet : Moose, deer species, pigs, cows, horses, buffalos and goats

Slide 84 (3).png
  • Family: Felidae

  • Local name : Clouded leopard

  • Scientific name : Neofelis nebulosa

  • Diet : Mainly eat birds, monkeys, porcupines, deer, pigs, wild boar, young buffalo and domestic animals.

Slide 84 (4).png
  • Family: Felidae

  • Local name : Black panther

  • Scientific name : Panthera pardus

  • Diet :  Mainly includes herbivores like deer, wild hogs, and wild boar. Also feed on livestock or small animals, such as rabbits, dogs, birds, and fish.

Slide 85 (1).png
  • Family: Bovidae

  • Local name : Gaur

  • Scientific name : Bos gaurus

  • Diet :  Wide variety of plants

Slide 85 (2).png
  • Family: Cervidae

  • Local name : Sambar deer

  • Scientific name : Rusa unicolor

  • Diet : Wide variety of vegetation, including grasses, foliage, browse, fruit, and water plants, depending on the local habitat

Slide 85 (3).png
  • Family: Cercopithecidae

  • Local name : Monkey

  • Scientific name : Macaca fascicularis

  • Diet : Meat and plant-based foods. Most monkeys eat nuts, fruits, seeds and flowers

Slide 85 (4).png
  • Family: Hystricidae

  • Local name : Malayan porcupine

  • Scientific name : Hystrix brachyura

  • Diet :  Roots, tubers, bark and fallen fruits. They also eat carrion, insects, and large tropical seeds

Slide 86 (1).png
  • Family: Hystricidae

  • Local name: Long-tailed porcupine

  • Scientific name: Trichys fasciculata

  • Diet : Variety of vegetable matter including fallen seeds, shoots and roots.

Slide 86 (2).png
  • Family: Muridae

  • Local name : Wood mouse

  • Scientific name : Berylmys bowersi

  • Diet : Mostly eat seeds from trees, but they also eat snails, insects, fruit, berries, nuts and fungi.

bottom of page