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  • The flora survey was initiated with the reconnaissance survey of the project site to provide a better understanding of the site conditions and vegetation types.

  • The aims of this flora survey are to assess:

  1. Vegetation types

  2. List of species which includes trees, medical plants, and lower plants

  3. Species distribution and diversity

  4. Presence of rare, endemic, and threatened species

  5. Tree stocking

Study Methodology

  • The ground survey was conducted by utilizing plot layout design.

  • The plot layout design consisted of one square fixed plots measuring 100 m X 50 m which equal to  0.5 hectare. 

  • All trees were identified to species level. Samples of leaves of trees not identified in the field were brought to base camp for further confirmation.

  • Selected species of interest were photographed using a digital camera.


Existing Tree Species

  • The project site is part of the secondary mid-elevated dipterocarp forest which had been previously logged over 30 years ago.

  • Some of the main tree species with diameters more than 45cm and above are retained such as Koompassia malaccensis (Kempas), Shorea parvifolia (Meranti sarang punai), Shorea leprosula (Meranti tembaga), Shorea ovalis (Meranti Kepong), Dryobalanops oblongifolia (Keledan), Syzygium dyerianum (Kerbau jantan) and Gynotroches axillaris (Mata keli).

  • Since some parts of the project site had been previously logged, it is dominated by secondary forest types of vegetation such as Sapium baccatum (Lundai) and Endospermum diadenum (Sesenduk).

  • Below are pictures of some tree species that are found within the project site. 

Species found within the project

Slide 51 (1).png

Shorea ovalis (Meranti Kepong)

Slide 51 (2).png

Sopium baccatum (Lundai)

Slide 51 (3).png

Shorea leprosula ( Meranti Tembaga)

Non-Tree Species

  • The study site is also rich with non-tree species such as herbs, ferns and palms.

  • There are also several plants of medicinal value such as Tacca integrifolia (Belimbing tanah), Phyllagathis rotundifolia (Meroyan Merah), and Labisa pumila (Kacip Fatimah).

  • Below are pictures of some non-tree species that are found within project site.

Non-Tree Species Found at the Project Site

Slide 53 (1)

Phyllagathis rotundfolia (Meroyan marah)

Slide 53 (3)

Pinanga malalana (Pinang hutan)

Slide 53 (2)

Tacca integrifolia (Belimbing tanah)

Slide 53 (4)

Dicranopteris linearis & D. curanii

(Paku resam), Melastoma malabatricum (senduduk), Dendrocalamus pendulus (buluh)

Species Compositions

  • A total of 305 individual tree with 117 species from 84 genus and 37 families were identified in the 0.5 hectare of study area during the survey. 

  • Below showed the list of families found in that particular study area.

  • It is noted that the total number of species recorded during this study is high.

Tree Species.png

Tree species found within the study area

Slide 56 (1)

Durio malaccensis  (Durian batang)

Slide 56 (2)

Ochanostachys amentacea (Petaling)

Slide 56 (3)

Mesua grandis  (Penaga sabut)

Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species

  • There is one of the rare, threatened and endemic species has to be found in our project site. That endemic species is namely as Scaphochlamys biloba. Scaphochlamys is a genus of plants in the ginger family.

Slide 57

Scaphochlamys biloba

Tree stocking

  • The range of dbh values of all species found within the study area are from 5 cm to 86 cm.

  • About 73.77% of trees (225 individuals) were in the range of 5 cm to 19.9 cm of dbh.

  • The number of individuals were decreased as the value of dbh  increased, where 45 individuals (14.75%) recorded within 20cm to 34.99cm, followed by 22 individuals ( 7.21%) recorded within 35cm to 49.99cm

  • Dbh values of over 65cm were recorded in 5 individuals only.

  • Inverted J-shaped distribution pattern reflects the number of individuals decreases with increasing the size of the diameter of the tree.

  • Several other studies carried out in several forests in Peninsular Malaysia also showed a similar distribution pattern

  • The distribution pattern was found in a forest that is still undergoing a process of regeneration and/or also forests that have reached a mature stage.

  • Species with large diameter within the study area is Koompassia malaccensis (Leguminosea), locally known as “Kempas”, has the largest diameter of 86cm, followed by Shorea leprosula (Dipterocarpacease) dan Dialium platysepalum (Leguminosae) with 85cm.

  • Tree species of the Dipterocarpacease are also listed in the 10 largest individual including Shorea parvifolia (81.0cm) and S.leprosula (71.0cm)

  • The absence of large trees (over 100cm dbh) clearly showed that this area has been previously logged, where many species with high commercial values has been felled.



  • The overall density of trees within the study area is 610 individuals/ha.

  • Among the observed stands of trees, Euphorbiacease had the highest density of 80ind/ha.

  • This was followed by Dipterocarpaceae with 50 individuals/ha, Leguminosae and Meliaceae with 30 ind/ha and Burseraceae with 26 ind/ha.

  • Meanwhile, at the species level, Pellacalyx saccardianus (Rhizophoraceae) had the highest density of 26 ind/ha.

  • This was followed by Shorea ovalis (Diptericarpaceae) with 20 ind/ha, Shorea parvifolia (Dipterocarpaceae) and D.oblongifolia (Dipterocarpaceae) with 18 ind/ha and Dyerianum Syzygium (Myrtaceae) with 16 ind/ha.

  • Density of tree species vary according to the type and scale of forest disturbance.


Tree densities for 10 families in Study plot at Proposed Project Area


Tree densities for 10 species in Study plot at Proposed Project Area


Basal area

  • The total basal area of the tree in the study plot is 23.03 m2/ha.

  • Dipterocarpaceae family is the major contributor of the basal area with of 5.34m2/ha (11.60%) followed by Euphorbiaceae with 3.13m2/ha (11.60%), Leguminosae with 2.45m2/ha (5.33%) and Myrtaceae with 2.23m2/ha (4.83%).

  • At a species level, the highest basal area is dominated by Shorea parvifolia (Dipterocarpaceae) with estimation of 2.29m2/ha (4.96%) followed by Sapium baccatum (Euphorbiaceae) with 1.59m2/ha (3.45%) and Shorea ovalis (Dipterocarpaceae) with 1.39m2/ha (3.01%).


The highest amount of Basal Area for 10 families in study plot at Proposed Project Area


The highest amount of Basal Area for 10 families in study plot at Proposed Project Area


Trees Biomass Estimation

  • Total tree biomass estimated in the study plot is 2, 766.66 t/ha.

  • The estimation of above ground biomass (AGB) contributes to 2,666.99 t/ha where the stem mass was 2237.36 t/ha (83.56%), followed by the branch area with 414.43 t/ha (15.48%) and the leaves with 15.20 t/ha (0.57%).

  • The below ground biomass (BGB) contributes 1.67 t/ha (0.40%)

Summary of Total Estimated Biomass in the Study Plot at the Project Area

  • The biggest biomass contributor in the study area is Dipterocarpaceae  family with 702.86 t/ha where the AGB and BGB value are 690.35 t/ha and 12.50 t/ha respectively.

  • The family which has second highest biomass value is Euphorbiaceae with biomass estimation of 354.491 t/ha while the AGB and BGB contribution are 348.21 t/ha and 6.28 t/ha, respectively.

  • Leguminosae was the third family which has total biomass of 338.01 t/ha where 332.07 t/ha was contributed by AGB, and 5.94 t/ha was from BGB value.

Total Estimated Biomass for 10 Major Families in the Survey Plot at Project Area

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