Existing environment

Topography

  • The project site is situated within mixed terrain areas consists of hilly terrain and flatter areas.

  • Our project site is low to mid elevated, and the elevation varies from 400 m to 500m.

  • The highest point approximately 500 m above sea level is spotted within the project site.

  • The topography and contour regimes of the project site are shown in the picture below.

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Geology

  • Based on the Geological Map of Malaysia published by Mineral and Geoscience department, it is observed that the project site falls under igneous rock located within intrusive rocks, mainly granite with minor granodiorite.

  • Besides, certain portion of the areas are composed of schist, phyllite, slate and limestone as well as minor intercalations of sandstone and volcanics. 

  • The geological contact, fault and fracture zone were found at the study area may indicate the geological process that undergoes at a place locally or regionally.

  • In general, our project site consists of several lithologies such as alluvium, tephra dust, and granitic rock.

  • Moreover, it is noted that the geological formation of the project site ranges from Permian until Jurassic which is from 145 million years to 298 million years ago. The overall view of general geological profile of the project site area is illustrated in the picture.

 
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Project Site

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Project Site

Soil

  •  The soil in Peninsular Malaysia can be divided into four (4) major groups as steepland soil, sedentary soils, alluvial soils and organic soils.

  • Department of Agriculture (DOA) Malaysia have carried out their soil mapping throughout Malaysia to provide information on soil characteristic and suitability and also as planning tool for agriculture purpose.

  • With reference to Reconnaissance Soil Map of Peninsular Malaysia (Revised 2002) for Piah Forest Reserve Perak, the type of soils within project site falls under steep land soils which surrounded by soil series of Bekenu and alluvial soils which surrounded by soil series of Telemong. 

Steep land soils

Bekenu series

  • The Bekenu Series is a representative of the Bekenu Family, which is fine loamy, siliceous, isohyperthermic, red-yellow to yellow Tipik Tualemkuts.

  • It characterizes the family and is grown over mixed sedimentary rocks.

  • Soils of the Bekenu Series are reformulated here as being identified by their buried, well drained profiles with brownish yellow to yellow subsoil colours controlling the subsoil.

  • These soils have an argillic horizon with fine sandy clay loam textures and a ECECclay of less than 24 cmol (+) kg–1 clay in all sub horizons between 25 to 100 cm depth.

  • Structures are weak medium to coarse subangular blocky, and stability is friable. Patchy clay skins happen on ped faces.

 
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  • They are reconceived here as soils having only an argillic horizon with red-yellow to yellow colour class and a CECclay of smaller than 24 cmol in all sub horizons between 25 cm to 100 cm depth.

  • Little is known about the scope in component of the Bekenu Series.

  • They commonly happen on rolling, hilly to steep terrain. On the steeper terrain the profiles become somewhat deep and are no longer the Bekenu Series.

  • Textures in this soil are consistently fine sandy clay loam and colours are brownish yellow, yellow to olive yellow.

  • Structure is commonly weak medium to coarse subangular blocky and consistence friable.

  • CECclay values are higher than 16 but less than 24 cmol (+) kg–1 clay. In some profiles a few sub horizons may have a CECclay of less than 16 cmol in the 25 to 100 cm depth

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Alluvial soils

Telemong series

  • Telemong soils are very crumbly, coarse to moderately coarse textured, very light brown to moderately coarse textured, very light brown to brownish yellow, deep soils evolved on recent riverine alluvium.

  • They are originated on the levees and floodplains of the vital and middle-sized rivers where they are issue to additions of material by periodic flooding.

  • These are immature soils differing in texture from the fine sand to fine sandy clay foam.

  • The surface soil is a very friable, yellowish brown to light yellowish brown, fine loamy sand to fine sandy clay loam, which possesses feebly developed fine subangular blocky to crumb structures. The subsoil is a very friable, light brown to brownish yellow fine sand to fine sandy clay loam, with weakly developed fine and medium subangular blocky to single grain structures

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  • The soil is regularly porous, well to somewhat overly drained, with many roots, and may on occasion be somewhat grainy.

  • The sand commonly contains mica.

  • Alternating layers of fine to coarse sand usually occur at depths beneath 100 cm.

  • Some of these layers may even show weak soil development in which case they represent buried horizons.

  • Very pale reddish yellow mottles are sometimes recognizable at depth, but these are never a conspicuous feature of the profile.

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River and Drainage Pattern

  • The Perak river basin has a catchment area of about 14,908 km2, which covers about 70% of Perak state.

  • It originates from the mountainous Perak-Kelantan-Thailand border of the Belum Forest Reserve in the north.

  • The river flows southward from Perak River Hydro Scheme to Telok Intan and subsequently turns west to discharge into the Straits of Melaka at Bagan Datuk

  • There are several rivulets and streamlets which are scattered within the project site. The rivulets and streamlets flowed from south Sungai Soh and finally west into Sungai Pelong & east into Sungai Da.

  • Sungai Soh has an elevation of 296 meters and is situated north of Kampung Bukit Sapi. Lenggong is situated 9 km southwest of Sungai Soh.

  • Rivers that are also connected within the project site are Sungai Salu, Sungai Da, Sungai Palung, Sungai Salu, Sungai Labu and Sungai Dam.

  • The nearest water treatment plants are Lenggong Water Treatment Plant, Sauk Water Treatment Plant and Kota Lama Kiri Water Treatment Plant which are located 41.2 km, 10.9 km and 23.9 km from the proposed project site.

 
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1)River pattern of Perak rivers

 
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 2) Map of rivers in Lenggong

 
 
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3) River pattern around the project site

 
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Meteorology

Temperature


The minimum and maximum of the mean annual temperatures data from year 2015 to 2020 at Lenggong, Perak Meteorological station ranges from 27°C to 30°C. It is observed that the temperature recorded at the station showed slightly high temperature from March to November.

 

Monthly Annual Temperature ( °C) From Year 2015 to 2020

 
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Rainfall


The highest rainfall was recorded in year 2020 (757.4mm) while the lowest year rainfall was recorded in year 2017 (28.17mm). It is noted that high rainfall amount was recorded from  April to November.

 

Monthly Annual Rainfall (mm) From Year 2015 to 2020

 
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Relative humidity

There were no obvious seasonal variations in relative humidity detected throughout the six years

Monthly Annual Relative Humdity Form Year 2015 to 2020

 
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Windspeed

Monthly Annual Windspeed (kmph) From Year 2015 to 2020

 
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Seasonal Monsoon

Generally, the wind condition of the Malaysia shows periodic changes with four seasons namely Northeast (NE) Monsoon (November –March), Southwest (SW) Monsoon (May-September), and two inter-monsoon periods occur during April-May and September-October. The weather station in Lenggong, Perak facing  the Strait of Malacca. Therefore,  the influences of the  sea  breeze (Southwest monsoon) can be seen throughout the year. Prevailing southeasterly winds flow across the Strait of Malacca bringing in abundant moisture.

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River water quality

  • The sampling of river water was conducted at ten (10) sampling points, namely W1C2A, W1C2B, W2C1A, W2C1B, W2C2A, W2C2B, W3C2A,W3C2B, W4C2A and W4C2B.

  • The river water sampling was conducted to assess the existing water quality within the project site.

  • The sampling stations were chosen based on the water flow direction of the rivulets within the project site.

  • Any impact from the projects during the implementation of project will flow from these rivulets into main watercourse.

 

River water Sampling Stations & List of Parameters Tested

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Results for River Water Quality

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Physical Properties 

Temperature

  • Water treatment plays an important role in bio-geographic distribution, biodegradation of pollutants and regulates the life, productivity, reproduction, survival and diversity of aquatic life . The temperature that is either too high or too low may affect the aquatic system. Commonly, temperature decreases with depth due to the influence by heat from the sun. Thus, shallow water will have higher heat.

  • The readings of temperature recorded during the time of sampling ranged from 28.7°C to 29.2 °C with an average of 28.9 °C. The lowest reading of temperature was recorded at station W3C2B. The variations of temperature recorded during the time of sampling are illustrated in figure below.

 
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pH

  • pH level is a measurement of the hydrogen ion in water. It is a variable for describing the acid-base equilibrium in water. It is a useful parameter for evaluating the physico-chemical and biological conditions of water.

  • The values of pH recorded during the time of sampling ranged from pH 6.9 until pH 7.4 with an average of pH 7.2. The lowest pH values was recorded at station W2C2A. The variations of pH values recorded during the time of sampling are illustrated in figure below.

 
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Color

  • The color river water samples collected during the time of sampling ranged from 43 CU to 463 CU. The variation of color values are illustrated in figure below. 

 
 
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Dissolved oxygen

  • Dissolved oxygen (DO) is a measure of oxygen from the atmosphere that is dissolved in water, and it is essential for respiration for aquatic life. There are several factors that effect the solubility of oxygen such as salinity, temperature, atmospheric exchange and biological process like respiration and photosynthesis.

  • The levels of DO recorded during the time of sampling ranged from 3.95mg/l to 6.41mg/l with an average of 4.61 mg/l. The highest level of DO was recorded at stations W3C2A. Meanwhile the lowest levels of DO were recorded at stations W2C1A and W2C1B. The variations of DO levels are illustrated in figure below.

 
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Turbidity

  • Turbidity is a measurement of the degree to which the water loses  its transparency due to the presence of suspended particulates. High concentration of total suspended solids in the water will result to high level of the water turbidity . Turbidity is considered as a good measure of the quality of the water.

  • The levels of turbidity recorded during the time of sampling ranged from 4.12 NTU with an average of 21.95 NTU. The highest level of turbidity was found at station W1C2B while the lowest level of turbidity was found at station W4C2A. The variations of turbidity levels are illustrated in figure below.

 
 
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Total dissolved solids

  • Total dissolved solids (TDS) is defined as all inorganic and organic substances contained in water that can pass through a 2-micron filter. In general, TDS is the sum of the cations and anions in the water .Ions and ionic compound making up TDS usually include carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, calcium , magnesium, sodium and potassium, but any ion that is present will contribute to the total. The organic ions include pollutants, herbicides, and hydrocarbons. In addition, soil organic matter compounds such as humic /fulvic acids are also included in TDS.

  • The concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS) recorded during the time of sampling ranged from 21mg/l to 48 mg/l with an average of 33 mg/l. The lowest concentration of TDS was found at stations W2C1A while the highest concentration was found at station W4C2B. The variations of TDS levels are illustrated in figure below.

 
 
 
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Total suspended solids

  • Total suspended solids (TSS) are particles that are larger than 2 microns found in the water column. TSS is a crucial parameter which may reveal the water quality of a sampling site at the moment it is sampled. The measurement is useful to identify the cleanliness of the water so that it be managed and utilized properly.

  • The concentrations of TSS recorded during the time of sampling ranged from 1 mg/l to 10 mg/l with an average of 5 mg/l. The highest concentration of TSS were recorded at station W1C1B and W2C1B. The variation of TSS levels are illustrated in figure below.

 
 
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Nutrient

Nitrogen (Ammonia)

  • Ammonia  (NH3)) is a product of decomposition of organic matter in water column. Usually, ammonia increase when the dissolve oxygen decreases. The levels of nitrogen (ammonia) recorded during the time of sampling ranged from below the level of reporting of 0.01 mg/l to 0.06 mg/l with an average of 0.03 mg/l . The highest concentration of nitrogen (ammonia) was found at station W2C2B. The variations of nitrogen (ammonia) levels are illustrated in figure below.

 
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Phosphorus

  • Phosphate stimulate the growth of plankton and aquatic plants which provide food for larger organisms, including zooplankton, fish, humans, and other mammals. Plankton represents the base of the food chain. Initially, the increased of productivity will cause an increase in the fish population and overall biological diversity of the system.

  • During this time of sampling, the levels of phosphorus recorded ranged from below the level of reporting of 0.01 mg/l to 0.03 mg/l. The variations of phosphorus levels are illustrated in figure below. It is observed that no significant differences in phosphorus levels between all stations monitored.

 
 
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Nitrogen (nitrate)

  • Nitrate is a naturally occurring form of nitrogen which is very mobile in water. River water which is high in nitrate levels is potentially harmful to human and animal health. However, nitrate is much less toxic than ammonia and nitrite (Corwin et al,1999)

  • The concentrations of nitrogen (nitrate) recorded during the time of sampling ranged from 0.07 mg/l to 0.11 mg/l . The highest concentration of nitrogen (nitrate) was recorded at station W2C2B. The variations of nitrogen (nitrate) levels are illustrated in figure below.

 
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Biological Oxygen Demand

  • Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) refers to the amount of oxygen that would be consumed if all the organics in one liter of water were oxidized by bacteria and protozoa (ReVelle and Revelle, 1988).The concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) recorded during the time of sampling ranged from 2.0 mg/l to 2.9 mg/l with an average of 2.5mg/l. The variations of BOD levels are illustrated in figure below. The highest concentrations of BOD was recorded at station W2C1A while the lowest concentration was recorded at station W2C2A.

 
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Chemical Oxygen Demand

  • Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) is a measurement of the oxygen required to oxidize and particulate organic matter in water . During the time of sampling, the levels of COD recorded at all sampling stations ranged from 10 mg/l to 28 mg/l with an average of 19mg/l. The lowest level of COD was recorded at station W3C2B while the highest level was recorded at station W3C2A.The variations of COD levels are illustrated in figure below.

 
 
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Oil and Grease

  • For oil and grease, the river water samples were collected at five(5) stations, namely W1C2B,W2C1B,W2C2B,W3C2B and W4C2B, which are located at the upstream of river. During the time of sampling, the levels of oil and grease ranged from 0.6 mg/l to 1.0mg/l with an average of 0.8mg/l.  The lowest level of oil and grease was recorded at station W2C1B while the highest level was recorded at station W2C2B. The variations of oil and grease levels are illustrated in figure below.

 
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Metals

Iron

  • The levels of iron recorded during the time of sampling ranged from below the level of reporting of 0.001 mg/l  to 1.45mg/l. The highest level of iron was detected at station W3C2B. The variations of iron levels are illustrated in figure below.

Manganese

  • The levels of manganese recorded during the time of sampling ranged from 0.05mg/l to 1.24mg/l with an average of 0.36 mg/l. The highest level of manganese was recorded at station W2C2B. The variations of manganese levels are illustrated in figure below.

 
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Total Coliform

  • The total coliform values detected during the time of sampling ranged from 13MPN/100ml to >1600 MPN/100ml. The lowest level of total coliform was recorded at station W2C1A. The variations of total coliform values are illustrated in figure below.

 
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Feacal coliform

  • Feacal coliforms are bacteria that are associated with human or animal waste. The presence of feacal coliforms in water may not be directly harmful and does not necessarily indicate the presence of feces, however it does indicate an increased likelihood of harmful pathogens in the water.

  • The levels of feacal coliform recorded during the time of sampling ranged from 2 MPN/100ml to 1600 MPN/100ml with an average of 310 MPN/100ml. The lowest level of feacal coliforms was recorded at station W2C1A.

 
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E.Coli

  • E.coli is a type of feacal coliform bacteria commonly found in the intestines of animals and humans. E coli is short for Escherichia coli. The presence of E.coli in water is a strong indication of recent sewage or animal waste of contamination. Sewage may contain many type of disease-causing organisms.

  • The values of E.coli recorded during the time of sampling ranged from < 1.8MPN /100ml to 240MPN/100ml.The lowest value of E.coli was detected at stations W4C2A and W4C2B. The variations of E.coli values are illustrated in figure below.

 
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Ambient air quality

  • Ambient air quality monitoring was carried out at four (4) sampling stations namely A1, A2, A3 and A4.  

Ambient  Air Sampling Stations & List of Parameters Tested

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Results for Ambient Air Quality

 
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Total suspended particulate

  • Ambient 24-hours total suspended particulate (TSP) concentrations in the study area ranged from below the level of reporting of 1µg/m3 to 3µg/m3 during the sampling period.

  • There is no standard limit for TSP stipulated in MAAQS.

  • Therefore, the results were not further discussed.

Particulate matter

  • Ambient 24-hours particulate matter PM10  concentrations in the study area ranged from 1µg/m3 to 2µg/m3 during the sampling period.

  • The standard limit for PM10 stipulated in MAAQS is 150 µg/m3.

  • Therefore, all stations monitored were within the limit.

 

Nitrogen dioxides

  • Ambient 1-hour nitrogen dioxides (NO2 ) concentrations in the study area ranged from 0.13 µg/m3  to 0.27 µg/m3 during the sampling period.

  • The standard limit for NO2  stipulated in  MAAQS is 320 µg/m3.

  • Therefore, all stations monitored were within the limit.

Sulphur dioxides

  • Ambient 1-hour Sulphur dioxides (SO2 ) concentrations in the study area ranged from below the level of reporting of 5 µg/m3 to 0.011 µg/m3 during the sampling period.

  • The standard limit for SO2  stipulated in MAAQS is 350 µg/m3 .

  • Therefore, all stations monitored were within the limit.

 
 

Ambient noise quality

  • The ambient noise monitoring was carried out at four (4) locations marked as A1, A2, A3, and A4.

  • The locations of the sampling points are tabulated.

  • A weighted noise levels were measured in-situ with the aid of high precision integrating sound level meter.

  • Measurement were taken during daytime at each locations.

  • Data were analyzed and interpreted for LAeq, LAmax, LAmin, L10,L50 and L90.

 

Ambient Noise Sampling Stations

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  • The data obtained are compared against World Health Organizations (WHO) Recommended Noise Exposure Limits (65dBA).

  • During the time of sampling (daytime), the noise levels (LAeq) recorded at all sampling stations ranged from 46.47 dBA to 60.0dBA.

  • Overall, it is noted that the noise levels (LAeq) recorded during the time of sampling were within the recommended limit.

Results for Ambient Noise Quality

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Landuse
 

  • Perak covers an area of approximately 20,976 km2 with the land area covered by forest is 10,122.41 km2.

  • It is noted that about 9876.76 km2 were classified as forest reserve and 22.58 km2 were proposed for forest reserve. 

  • The project site is in the Titiwangsa Range’s Central Forest Spine (CFS) forest complex.

  • Our project site is within the Kuala Kangsar districts which covers 204.94 km2 (79.13 sq mi).

 
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Population and Demography

  • The state of Perak has a population of 2,352,743 in year 2020.

 

 

Orang Asli Settlement

  • Based on the research done by us, there are 3 locations of Orang Asli Communities in Lenggong. The nearest Orang Asli settlement is located at 10km of the project site which is known as Lubuk Chupak Village. The other two village which are Air Karah Village and Air Bah Village.